An argumentative essay is a “genre” or type of written text that is used to teach students how to argue.
The word “argument” in the context of a reasoned essay means researching a topic after identifying its key problems by developing ideas that are supported by evidence from relevant sources.
Before writing a reasoned essay should be a lot of critical and selective reading. Critical reading means understanding, doubting and evaluating the material being read. Scientific references to other authors will only strengthen the arguments put forward by the student. The data, information, and quotations collected during the reading process become relevant only when they are logically and sequentially integrated into the argument.
The process of developing a clear and convincing argument helps the author in his formation as a thinker and critic. This is due to the fact that written reasoning contributes to the development of mental abilities: the organization of thoughts, structuring of the material, assessment of facts, adherence to logical consistency and clear self-expression.
The argued essay can be divided into certain component parts, of which 4 must always be present: introduction, presentation of the argument, expectation of objections, conclusion. The introduction should contain an introductory and abstract statement. The introductory statement — a special, eye-catching statement or a question, quotation, or other fact — is all that will make the reader read further. The thesis is, as a rule, the last sentence of the introductory part, which acts as the governing force of the essay. Presentation is the presentation of an argument and the provision of evidence (application and support). The conventions of Western, namely English academic rhetoric, require that at a certain stage the author acknowledges the opposite view. If a student is not able to consider the expected objections, thereby he deliberately ignores the evidence against his argument. In addition, he should know that the argument will have more confidence if he himself recognizes the opposite side. The practice of contradiction improves critical thinking, forcing the author to put himself in the framework of discussions and realize that other points of view not only exist, but have their own rationale. When considering objections, the student must offer solutions to problems that put the opposite opinion before his argument, indicate the weak points on which the opposite opinion is based, make concessions to him and offer a compromise position or solution. The conclusion should include the synthesis of the argument, the re-formulation of the thesis and the final statement.
When analyzing and evaluating a student’s argumentative essay, the teacher focuses on four areas of student competence: compliance with a given topic; critical use of written sources; reasonable argument; competent presentation